|Title:||Differential Metabolic Regulation Governed by the Rice SUB1A Gene during Submergence Stress and Identification of Alanylglycine by 1H NMR Spectroscopy|
|Authors:||Gregory A. Barding, Jr., Takeshi Fukao, Szabolcs Béni, Julia Bailey-Serres, and Cynthia K. Larive|
|Reference:||J. Proteome Res., 2012, 11 (1), pp 320–330|
Although the genetic mechanism of submergence survival for rice varieties containing the SUB1A gene has been elucidated, the downstream metabolic effects have not yet been evaluated. In this study, the metabolomes of Oryza sativa ssp. japonica cv. M202 and cv. M202(Sub1) were profiled using 1H NMR spectroscopy to compare the metabolic effect of submergence stress and recovery on rice in the presence or absence of SUB1A.
Significant changes were observed in the NMR resonances of compounds in pathways important for carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of SUB1A in M202(Sub1) was correlated with suppression of carbohydrate metabolism in shoot tissue, consistent with the role of SUB1A in limiting starch catabolism to fuel elongation growth.
The absence of SUB1A in M202 was correlated with greater consumption of sucrose stores and accumulation of amino acids that are synthesized from glycolysis intermediates and pyruvate. Under submergence conditions, alanine, a product of pyruvate metabolism, showed the largest difference between the two varieties, but elevated levels of glutamine, glutamate, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, and valine were also higher in M202 compared with the M202(Sub1) variety.
The identification and characterization of alanylglycine (AlaGly) in rice is also reported. After 3 days of submergence stress, AlaGly levels decreased significantly in both genotypes but did not recover within 1 day of desubmergence with the other metabolites evaluated. The influence of SUB1A on dynamic changes in the metabolome during complete submergence provides new insights into the functional roles of a single gene in invoking a quiescence strategy that helps stabilize crop production in submergence-prone fields.